What is the transverse abdominis?
The transverse abdominis, also known as the TVA muscle, is the deepest innermost layer of all abdominal muscles and is located underneath your rectus abdominis (the six-pack stomach muscle). The transverse abdominis muscle runs horizontally across the abdomen and is recruited almost any time a limb moves.
What does the TVA do?
The transverse abdominis helps with the breathing process by assisting in exhalation and compressing the internal organs. However, its main function is to activate the core musculature and stabilize the pelvis and low back prior to movement of the body. It acts as a natural “weight belt” or muscular girdle by resisting flexion of the lumbar spine (lower back). The TVA keeps the cervical spine (neck) in a neutral position during core training and helps to improve posture, muscle balance and stabilization. A strong TVA provides a solid foundation for any movement.
So why care about the transverse abdominis?
Since the TVA acts as a muscular girdle, it stabilizes your pelvis and provides support against outside forces. It defends against repetitive physical stresses from various motions your body makes such as twisting, bending, running, squatting, etc. A strong TVA will help you transfer force more efficiently through the muscles, rather than through your back and joints, thus aiding in the reduction of aches and pains (and injuries) caused by related stresses.
This all sounds good, but what about that bikini/beach-ready body that was mentioned in the first part of this article?
Well, not only does a developed transverse abdominis muscle help protect your back and joints during movement, but a strong and well developed TVA also equates to a tighter, slimmer waist.
What is the difference between the rectus abdominis and the transverse abdominis muscles and how does the TVA aid in the creation of a flatter stomach?
Fit individuals with a washboard or “six-pack” stomach most likely have well developed rectus abdominis muscles. The rectus abdominis muscle is the most superficial of all abdominal muscles. It runs vertically and has the main role of flexing the body forward. Whenever rectus abdominis muscles are developed, they grow outward. This can be good, but depending on your total body fat percentage, this can also be bad.
If you have a very low body fat percentage, a defined rectus can create the infamous six pack stomach look. However, if you have a higher body fat content and a layer of fat over these muscles, your stomach may look as if it bulges outward and will look more bulky.
Building your rectus abdominis muscle and not focusing on strengthening other areas is analogous to letting out your belt, or letting your stomach “pooch” fall forward. While the rectus abdominis muscle responds to strengthening exercises by developing outward, the transverse abdominis muscle develops inward and in effect, as mentioned earlier, is analogous to tightening your belt or wearing a muscular girdle. It is like the Spanx of the abdominal muscles!
Regardless of your current body fat percentage, developing the transverse abdominis muscle will aid in flattening your tummy and will ultimately help you feel better in your clothes. For those who have a lower body fat percentage, a developed TVA muscle will create more definition around your stomach so that you will look and feel better without seeming too bulky or muscular.
To achieve this toned look, you must:
- Eat a well balanced, holistic, and nutritional diet geared towards your body-type. Eat whole foods while limiting refined sugars.
- Participate in movement activities at least 5 days per week.
- Consistently strength train your entire body, not just one part.
What causes a weak transverse abdominis and what are some problems associated with weakness in this muscle?
The following may cause a weak transverse abdominis:
- Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle
- Surgical procedures
- Lack of neural drive
- Improper training of the core musculature/too much flexion and extension
Let’s take a closer look:
1) In many cases, inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle can cause weakness in the transverse abdominis. If you do not use the muscle, you will lose the muscle.
2) Surgical procedures that involve cutting of the abdominal wall can also create a dysfunctional TVA. Caesarian sections, hysterectomies, hernias, and child-birth can all be responsible for this weakness. During such surgeries, the muscles, nerves, and tissues are cut, causing a loss of neurological impulse (connection from your brain to your muscle). After these surgeries, your brain will try to recruit your stomach muscles to wake them up, but often, they do not answer unless you make extra effort to retrain the neuromuscular system.
3) A lack of neural drive to the core muscles can create the belly to push outward, creating a “pooch belly.” The weaker your TVA is and/or the heavier you are as an individual, the more pronounced this pooch belly will be. A lack of neural drive may be caused by a sedentary lifestyle and/or surgery.
4) Another cause of a weak transverse abdominis is improper training of the core. For many years, people have been taught to train the wrong muscle during abdominal exercises. How many times have you been told to focus on flexion and extension exercises (i.e. crunches) to strengthen your core?*
- Too much flexion and extension – *For the vast majority of us, abdominal training has involved flexion and extension (bending) movements that focus almost exclusively on the rectus abdominus (crunches). By doing crunches and other bending exercises for your stomach muscles, you are essentially shortening the rectus abdominis and in effect pushing out the abdomen, not pulling it in. If you are not also training your TVA, this can cause problems. A weak TVA can further create poor body movement quality and instability, which may even lead to early degeneration of bones and joints.
Exercises geared towards strengthening the TVA muscle help to reconnect the nervous and muscular systems so that the stomach muscles can again function properly. Once they are firing correctly, you have a greater chance at ridding yourself of a pooch belly.
How do you get a stronger transverse abdominis?
If you dread or despise crunches, you are in luck! To develop and strengthen the transverse abdominis, you do not have to perform flexion or extension exercises. To start building strength in your TVA muscle, you will need to know how to activate it through a series of “draw-in” abdominal maneuvers. “Drawing in your abdominal muscles” is a conscious process and takes a lot of practice, but once you understand it, you will see results like a stronger core, flatter stomach and a beach ready tummy.
For many people, learning to draw in the abdominals is a difficult process. As mentioned above, most people are used to working their core by developing the rectus abdominis muscles through conventional methods such as crunches, sit-ups, and other flexion/extension exercises. Remember, these exercises push out the abdominal wall. We want to pull the abdominal wall in. The concept of drawing in is the exact opposite of rectus abdominis training. It is the process where you pull IN your abdominal wall.
Five exercises that focus on drawing in the abdominal muscles include:
- The lying draw-in maneuver (tummy vacs)
- Foot-hand bear crawl
- The forward ball roll
- Hollow body holds
Let’s take a closer look at these exercises:
1) The lying draw-in maneuver (tummy vacs)
My clients are familiar with the movement that I call “tummy vacuums.” I have had people from varying fitness levels and demographics have success with them.
The lying draw-in maneuver (tummy vacs) is just one of many exercises that can be used to train and strengthen the TVA. It is a great exercise to add to your fitness program, as it will help you fine-tune your body and abs so that you can feel strong, confident and sexy in your clothes, bikini, and swim trunks year round! A properly functioning transverse abdominis will also help you move better and reduce the risk of injury to your back and spine.
- To learn how to do perform tummy vacuums, visit my article “Get a Strong Core with the Lying Drawn-In Maneuver (“Tummy Vacuums”)“.
2) Foot-hand bear crawls
The foot-hand crawl, which is known by many as the bear crawl, is an essential skill to add to your fitness program. Apply this exercise to your workout routine and you will build mobility, flexibility, balance, coordination, and strength throughout your body – especially in your core, hips, and shoulders. It will improve your connection with nature and it will also tone and flatten your belly, especially your transverse abdominis.
Consistent crawling practice will help restore your original strength and will enhance your life in many areas. Not only will you be more prepared for a situation when you might need to crawl, but your physical strength will increase, your mobility will improve, your mental focus/acuity will sharpen, your response to stress will better and so will your mood.
- Visit my articles, “The Benefits of Crawling” and “Foot-Hand Bear Crawl Exercise” to learn more about why crawling is beneficial and for instruction on how to perform the bear crawl exercise (exercise videos are included).
3) The forward ball roll
The forward ball roll is an exercise to help strengthen your core musculature, especially your transverse abdominis. Not only will this exercise help you achieve strength, stability and flexibility in your stomach and back muscles, but it will also target your shoulders and triceps muscles.
- Learn how to perform the forward ball roll by visiting my article, “Strengthen Your Core With The Forward Ball Roll”
4) Hollow body holds
Hollow body holds are an awesome way to improve your overall core strength. Mastering these holds will line you up for success with body control in locomotive movements such as running, walking, climbing, and swimming and will help you get stronger with pull-ups and gymnastics moves such as handstands.
- In the following video, Ryan Hurst from GMB Fitness does a kick-ass job demonstrating how to perform hollow body hold progressions:
The plank exercise improves strength in your core as well as in your upper and mid-body.
- In the following article, Levi Harrison from Breaking Muscle demonstrates six plank variations that will ensure that you are targeting and firing your transverse abdominis. A three minute video is included as well. Take a look: 6 Plank Variations To Test Your Core Strength
Please share your thoughts and/or questions in the comment section below this article.
Thanks so much for reading and I look forward to hearing from you!
- Pearson Education, Inc.