10 Steps to Healthy Gums and Teeth
Do you practice successful holistic self-dentistry? Holistic self-dentistry is when you consistently follow an oral-care routine that goes beyond conventional brushing and flossing. Proper self-dentistry combats gum disease and tooth decay, results in strong and healthy gums and teeth, and benefits your overall health.
Today’s article teaches you about your oral ecology and gives you 10 holistic self-dentistry steps that, when followed, will bring you one step closer to healthy gums and teeth. These at-home dental steps will bring mindfulness into your dental maintenance routine and will help you create sustainable oral care strategies and habits that will build stronger and healthier teeth, gums and saliva.
Do you want healthy gums and teeth? The daily 10-step protocol presented in this article offers an effective way to prevent tooth and gum decay, illness, acidic saliva, plaque build-up, bleeding gums, and oral inflammation. The ten actions are simple and anyone can do them. Let’s take a look at why you should follow them.
Why is it important to follow a successful self-dentistry routine? According to recent findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), half of Americans aged 30 or older (about 64.7 million people) have periodontitis, the more advanced form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease that effects the soft and hard structures that support the teeth. With gingivitis, the early stage of periodontal disease, gums become swollen and red due to inflammation. In the more serious form of periodontal disease called periodontitis, the gums recede away from the tooth, supporting gum tissues are destroyed, and serious tooth decay occurs.
New studies have suggested possible relationships between periodontal disease and diabetes, heart disease, stroke, dementia and at-risk pregnancies, making it more important than ever to prevent, treat and heal periodontal disease.
Self-dentistry prevents and heals disease
If you want to ward off periodontal gum disease and tooth decay, it is essential that you create successful oral-care habits. Visiting a dentist 1-2 times a year isn’t enough to keep your gums and teeth healthy; it is necessary that you take care of your teeth daily. If you know how to successfully care for your gums and teeth at home, periodontal disease and tooth decay can be avoided and even reversed!
If you or someone you know suffer(s) with bleeding and receding gums, cavities, sensitive teeth or halitosis (or want(s)to avoid all of this) continue reading; this article tells you exactly what you need to do. Before we get into the nitty-gritty of what constitutes a successful routine, it is important to know more about the basic components of your oral environment. Let’s get started by looking at the structure of your teeth.
Your teeth are alive
“Even if there has been massive damage, the teeth can be repaired. In fact, research tells us that teeth with early cavity damage can heal themselves once disease is eliminated from the oral environment.” – Dr. Robert O. Nara, How to Become Dentally Self-Sufficient .
A cool fact that many people don’t know is that your teeth (and gums) are alive and capable of being rejuvenated! Like organs within your body, living teeth and gums respond to factors such as bacteria, nutrition, hormones, stress/inflammation, medications and trauma. When provided with proper care and a healthy oral environment, teeth and gums have the capacity to heal and the current condition of your mouth can transform. Tooth enamel can be restored, dentine can be reactivated, gums can regenerate, and saliva can remineralize. To learn more about how teeth have the ability to heal, let’s take a quick look at their anatomy and functioning from a microscopic point-of-view.
Teeth are not solid
Unlike what you may think, teeth are not solid structures. Instead, they consist of a series of hollow dentinal tubules, enamel rods, and pulp which consists of blood vessels, nerves and dentine-producing odontoblasts. Each square millimeter of a tooth has 45,000 microscopic tubules running through it which allows for the transport of fluids.
Dentinal fluid transport
Teeth are internally active, making them living structures. A microscopic flow of fluid, called dentinal fluid, flows upward and outward through each living tooth. Under healthy circumstances, dentinal fluid flows in an outward direction, from the pulp of the tooth through the membranes of odontoblasts, through the dentine (via dentinal tubules), toward and through the enamel of each tooth. This system is called dentinal fluid transport (DFT). The image above displays the direction of normal dentinal fluid transport.
Optimal dentinal flow helps oral health
When functioning optimally, dentinal fluid, which is mostly made up of an alkaline cytoplasm, performs a continuous self-cleaning action. It flushes toxins away from the tooth, neutralizes bacterial acids and repels nasty microbial biofilm, or plaque, on the tooth’s surface. Dentinal fluid forms droplets on the tooth’s enamel and forms a protective layer. If there is injury to the tooth’s layer, dentinal fluid’s flow volume increases to that area. This helps fight against decay and disease. The fluid also draws valuable minerals and nutrients from blood vessels in the pulp and into the dentin, providing the tooth with an unlimited supply of essential nutrients that allow it to grow strong and heal when needed.
Compromised dentinal flow hurts oral health
When the dentinal flow transport mechanism is compromised, the flow reverses and creates a pressure that draws fluids from the mouth and into the tooth. Bacteria, pathogens, acid and fungi are sucked into the teeth. The result is an inflamed pulp chamber, acidic saliva, demineralization of teeth, gum decay and bad bacterial growth. Factors that can reverse or disrupt the flow include:
- High intake of sugars and refined carbohydrates
- Malnutrition (not getting enough vitamins, minerals and other necessary micronutrients)
- Sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise/movement)
- Lymph stagnation
- Chronic stress
- Hormone imbalance
- Pharmaceutical drug use
- Fluoride and other oral care chemicals
Luckily, because teeth and gums are alive and programmed to heal themselves, dentinal fluid flow can be restored to the mouth by practicing holistic oral self-care steps, improving your nutrition, managing your stress, and making lifestyle changes.
Another important part of your oral ecosystem and key to healthy gums and teeth is a strong oral microbiome. Let’s take a closer look at what a microbiome is and why it is important.
Photo credits: studiodentaire.com | PCIDM
Aside from proper dentinal flow, another key to oral health and vitality is maintaining an ecologically balanced and diverse microbiodome. Microbiome is the term for the colonies of trillions of microbes living on or within your human tissues and biofluids such as skin, glands, gut, and mouth. Your microbiome is responsible for an endless number of essential body functions and optimal health depends on a thriving microbiome.
Your oral microbiome
As part of the trillions of microbes that make up your human microbiome, the oral microbiome (including the mouth, throat and nose) is home to more than 700 species of bacteria that play a large role in determining your dental and whole-body health. Every day, nearly one trillion bacteria travel through your mouth, nose and gastrointestinal (GI) tract into your gut, where 80% of your immune system resides. Some of the bacteria stay and colonize in your oral microbiome and some travel straight to the intestine where they impact your immune digestive, metabolic and mental health.
Unfortunately, harmful bacteria (like Streptococcus mutans) like to make their home in your oral microbiome by attaching themselves to the sticky biofilm on your teeth and gums. Here they feed on dietary sugar and produce acids that demineralize and break down tooth enamel and gum tissue.
Strengthen your microbiome to scare off harmful bacteria
Fortunately, by taking control over your oral environment, you can replenish your body with the beneficial microbes and can alter and strengthen your entire microbiome. Your body is intelligently designed and as mentioned earlier, has the innate wisdom to heal itself. When you repopulate your oral microbiome, eliminate what hinders the healthy functioning of your body, and perform daily do-it-yourself oral care maintenance, you allow living gums and teeth to heal themselves.
The last important part of your mouth I am going to discuss is your saliva. Let’s take a look at what makes saliva an important factor of oral health.
Photo credit: geneticliteracyproject.org
Saliva is a fluid produced by the major salivary glands which include the parotid, submandibular, sublingual and the small labial. It is a saline solution made up of enzymes, minerals, peptides and bicarbonate that help take care of teeth and gums. The quality of your saliva can remineralize or demineralize teeth.
Healthy saliva is alkaline
Healthy gums and teeth exist in a sea of saline alkalinity. Saliva that is too acidic or too alkaline can be harmful to your mouth. If saliva is too alkaline, it will excrete calcium which can cause calculus buildup on your teeth. When the pH of your saliva is too acidic, your saliva can dissolve the enamel of your teeth and create a thriving habitat for bad bacteria.
However, when the pH of your saliva and mouth is around 7, your teeth and gums are provided with an alkaline environment where they can heal decay and prevent new disease from forming. For this reason, it is important to let saliva do it’s job in the right pH so that it coats your gums and teeth and helps healing. To keep your saliva at the right pH, hydrate with high quality water, eat well, and limit your intake of refined sugar and prescription medications.
Photo credit: i.ytimg.com/vi/uCANQsAlmmA/maxresdefault.jpg
10 steps to healthy gums and teeth
It’s now time to discuss the 10 steps to healthy gums and teeth! Make taking care of your mouth part of your beauty and self-care routine. If you treat your mouth like the living ecological system that it is, you will give your teeth, gums, oral microbiome and saliva an environment that will invite nourishment, strength, and regeneration.
The following 10 steps will help you produce a healthy oral habitat so your teeth and gums can thrive. You will optimize your dentinal flow transport, create a healthy microbiome, and nourish your saliva. Your teeth, gums, and mouth will become freshened and disease will be prevented and reversed.
Consistency is key
Complete these steps every day, in the morning and at night, because it takes only six hours for plaque to begin to rebuild itself. Consistent self oral-care will lead to clean, smooth and healthy gums and teeth. Let’s get started.
1. Pull and swish with coconut oil + essential oils
Coconut oil pulling (oil swishing), is one of the best ways to remove oral bacteria and promote healthy gums and teeth. It improves your mouth’s microbiome, balances the pH in your mouth, soothes gums, whitens teeth, and heals oral and dental disease. Studies on oil pulling have shown that oil pulling may inhibit tooth decay, prevent pathogenic bacteria from building tartar, decrease plaque buildup, reduce and eliminate bacteria that causes cavities, heal gum/periodontal disease, kill bad breath, prevent heart disease, and boost the immune system.
Used primarily in Ayurvedic medicine, oil pulling, known as gandusha in Ayurveda, is an ancient medicinal practice used to detoxify the mouth, gums and teeth. The oil pulling process involves swishing a tablespoon of oil (coconut oil, sesame oil, and/or botanical extracts) in the mouth for 10-20 minutes before spitting it out. Swishing the oil draws toxins from the oral cavity and flushes bacteria from the body. The process creates an antiseptic oral environment that encourages the proper flow of dentinal fluid that’s needed to prevent cavities and disease.
Coconut oil and MCT oil
When using coconut oil, always swish with pure, unrefined, organic coconut oil or coconut MCT oil. Organic coconut oil contains MCT fatty acids (medium chain triglycerides) that are antibacterial, promote gut health, fight free radicals, and regulate healthy bacteria. MCT oil is pure medium chain triglycerides and concentrates all of the beneficial compounds of coconut oil into less volume. It remains liquid at all temperatures despite being a saturated fat. MCT oil can be purchased on its own.
Coconut oil + essential oils
To enhance the effects of oil pulling and freshen your breath, add a couple drops of essential oil to the coconut oil. Essential oils carry some of the most potent antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties on the planet and will assist in warding off bad bacteria and plaque. Choose frankincense, peppermint, seabuckthorn, tea tree, wild orange, clove bud, or cinnamon essential oils or use a pre-mixed essential oil dental serum such as Living Libations’ Mint + Myrrh Swishing Serum, Yogi Tooth Serum, or Happy Gum Drops.
Oil pull first thing in the morning before you eat, drink or brush your teeth. Gently swish 1-2 tablespoons of coconut oil or MCT oil with 2 drops of an essential oil in your mouth and between your teeth for 10-20 minutes. Do not swallow any of the oils. Spit the oils in the trash because coconut oil may solidify and clog your plumbing. If you do not have coconut oil on hand, mix a couple drops of Happy Gum Drops with Oil Swishing Serum and swish for 10 minutes. Spit the oils in the trash.
Related: Dr. Bronner’s Organic Unrefined Coconut Oil |Bulletproof Brain Octane MCT Oil |Living Libations Mint + Myrrh Swishing Serum | Living Libations Yogi Tooth Serum | Living Libations Happy Gum Drops
2. Rinse with salt water
Swish with salt water before brushing. Salt eliminates microbes and makes the pH of the mouth and saliva alkaline, creating a neutral oral environment for healing.
Mix one ounce of high quality sea salt and sixteen ounces of warm, non-fluoridated, non-chlorinated spring water. Shake the saltwater rinse, pour yourself a shot of the mixture, swish a few times, and spit. To increase the antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties of your rinse, add a drop of essential oil to the mixture. Essential oils such as peppermint, clove bud, cinnamon, myrrh, clove, rosewood, and frankincense will remove unwanted oral microbes. Choose salt rinsing over brushing after meals, especially after you have eaten acidic foods, as the salt rinse will neutralize the acidity in your mouth.
3. Scrape the tongue
You know that thick, white coating on your tongue in the morning? That film contains odor-producing microbes and mucus that disrupt the harmony of your mouth’s environment. It is there because your saliva production slows down at night and without the normal regulatory saliva, bacteria thrives. Tongue scraping is a quick and easy action that will remove the coating, improve your breath, enhance taste bud sensitivity and performance, and aid in digestion. It is a simple and powerful way to prevent cavities and remove periodontal plaque.
If you do not own a tongue scraper, use the edge of a spoon. Use the scraper to gently scrape the surface of your tongue from back to front. Reach the back of your tongue, as the majority of bacteria on the tongue can be found where it is dark and warm. Rinse the scraper in warm water after each scrape, and scrape a few more times until the coating is removed and your tongue is clean. Add a drop of essential oil or tooth serum to your tongue scraper for more bacteria-fighting oomph. When finished, use soap and warm water to clean the tongue scraper.
4. Brush the gums
Healthy gums provide a barrier against microbes trying to enter the circulatory system through the mouth. Gums also cover the roots and ligaments of teeth and hold them upright. The sulcus, the union where the gum and tooth meet, is an important area in the mouth to protect. An unhealthy gum line (receding gums) enables bad bacteria to reach a portion of the tooth that does not have protective enamel. When microbes infiltrate this area, tooth and gum decay occur as do food and temperature sensitives. The good news is that because gums are alive, they have the ability to regenerate and quickly heal. Bleeding gums can often be remedied, sometimes in 24 to 48 hours.
Use a dry, soft-bristled manual toothbrush to brush the gums. Brush lightly and gently over the gum line and toward the teeth: downward on the top teeth, and upward on the bottom teeth. You can use a light-activated ionic toothbrush for this step, as ionic toothbrushes create negative ions in your saliva that draw away much of the plaque. For greater benefit, add a drop of essential oil or tooth serum to your toothbrush.
5. Polish the teeth
Polishing the teeth removes leftover plaque/biofilm and stains and leaves your teeth feeling clean.
Use a dry round-headed electric toothbrush because it will hit areas of your mouth not effectively reached by a manual tooth. Add a dab of tooth polish and one drop of essential oil or tooth serum to your brush and run it over your teeth for 1-2 minutes. Make your own tooth polish by combining equal amounts of baking soda and salt.
6. Check the gum lines
As protectors to your teeth, healthy gums are essential to oral health. When gums pull away from teeth, bacteria sneaks into portions of teeth that do not have protective enamel, making gums and teeth more susceptible to decay. Luckily, gums are alive and can heal. They just need some self-care.
Check your inner and outer gum lines (gingival sulcus) for rough patches of plaque buildup. Inspect your gum lines with your tongue, rubber-tipped gum stimulator tool, or sulcus brush. Add a drop of essential oil, tooth serum or gum drops to one of these tools and gently move along the gum line, on the inside and outside of each tooth. This will help clean those hard to reach places. Use a dental mirror with a light to help see what is happening with your back molars and gums.
Flossing is another important step of self-dentistry and oral health. Flossing removes plaque and food particles from between teeth, where a toothbrush cannot reach. Removal of plaque and food build ups helps to prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
Tear off a long strand of floss. Add a drop of essential oil to two fingers and use your fingers to coat the floss with the oil. Wind the floss around your fingers and slide it in between your teeth, up and down, back and forth. The essential oils will improve the effectiveness of flossing, as they will seep into places in your mouth that floss cannot reach, providing an antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral boost to your dental care routine. Avoid floss and floss sticks that contain fluoride.
8. Final salt rinse
Rinsing your mouth with salt water again will flush out any remaining food particles. The salt and essential oils will coat your mouth so that bacteria will be discouraged to grow. This final rinse will leave your mouth feeling and smelling extra fresh!
Pour another shot of your homemade salt rinse from step #1. Vigorously swish the mixture in your mouth a few times and spit.
Use an oral gum irrigator, a blunt-ended syringe, to rinse out microbes and biofilm that you may have missed in the above steps. This step will revitalize your gum tissue.
Pour some of your DIY mouthwash into a shot glass and add a drop of essential oil to it (if you haven’t already). Mix thoroughly and draw the mixture up and into the irrigator’s syringe. Flush the gum line and the spaces between your teeth. Rub another drop of oil onto the gums. This will help freshen your breath, protect against microbes, and soothe gum tissue.
10. Feed your gums and teeth
Successful self-dentistry goes far beyond rinsing, scraping, brushing and flossing. I’ve shown you how external factors can effect oral ecology. Now, let’s take a look at how internal factors can influence oral health and vitality.
Dentinal fluid transport + nutrition
As mentioned throughout this article, your teeth and gums are living structures. In order to maintain decay-free health, they need a consistent supply of nutrients on a daily basis just like any other tissue/organ in your body. Remember the dentinal fluid transport mechanism from the beginning of this article?
Teeth and gums rely heavily on the dentinal fluid transport mechanism for their nutritional requirements. When this system is disrupted, teeth and gums do not get the nutrients and minerals they need to survive. Instead, the flow reverses, bringing bad bacteria inward into your body’s systems, and this threatens the integrity of the teeth and gums. If you want healthy gums and teeth, you need to have a properly functioning dentinal fluid transport.
“Every time you eat or drink, you are either feeding disease or fighting it.”
The foods you consume will impact the health of your gums and teeth. When you eat whole foods complete with vitamins and minerals, drink clean spring water, and maintain hormonal balance within your body, your teeth and gums will thrive and if need be, regenerate. However, if you eat a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, sugars, and other anti-nutrient foods (like phytic acid), your teeth and gums will deteriorate, decay and become diseased.
My next article, “How to Reverse Tooth Decay and Heal Gum Disease With Nutrition,” will tell you exactly what you should and should not eat in order to achieve healthy gums and teeth and reverse oral disease. Stay tuned!
Boom! You now have 10 simple and straight forward oral-care steps you can follow for healthy gums and teeth. If these steps are not included in your daily routine, it is time to revise your oral care regimen and add what is missing. You can get started today with just salt and baking soda if you do not have the other items.
If you follow this 10 step self-dentistry protocol daily, you will soon notice its effectiveness at preventing tooth decay, gum bleeding and inflammation. Take charge of your oral wellness so that you can proudly show off your new healthy gums, strong teeth, happy smile and fresh breath!
- The health of your teeth and gums rely on a strong oral ecosystem. Optimal oral health depends on efficient functioning of the dentinal fluid transport system, oral microbiome and saliva.
- Your teeth and gums are alive and capable of being rejuvenated. Like organs within your body, living teeth and gums respond to factors such as bacteria, nutrition, hormones, stress/inflammation, medications and trauma. When provided with proper care and a healthy oral environment, teeth and gums have the capacity to heal and the current condition of your mouth can transform. Gums can be rejuvenated, enamel can be restored, dentine can be reactivated, and saliva can remineralize.
- When functioning optimally, dentinal fluid draws minerals and nutrients from blood vessels in the pulp and into the dentin, flushes toxins away from the tooth, neutralizes acids and repels plaque from the tooth’s surface. It provides a self-cleansing action that fight against decay and disease.
- When the dentinal flow transport mechanism is compromised, the flow reverses and draws fluids from the mouth and into the tooth, thus sucking bacteria, pathogens, acid and fungi into the teeth. The result is an inflamed pulp chamber, acidic saliva, demineralization and decay.
- Make taking care of your mouth part of your beauty and self-care routine. If you treat your mouth like the living ecological system that it is, you invite nourishment, strength, and regeneration of its tissues.
- Practicing daily dental self-care will help you produce a healthy oral environment so your teeth and gums can thrive and heal.
- The holistic 10 steps to healthy gums and teeth outlined in this article include: coconut oil and essential oil pulling, salt water rinsing, tongue scraping, gum brushing, teeth polishing, checking the gum lines, flossing, salt water rinsing #2, irrigating and eating healthy nutrition.
- The 10 steps should be completed twice a day in the morning and at night. Consistency achieves success.
What do you think?
I want to hear your thoughts about oral health. Are these 10 steps to healthy gums and teeth helpful? How do YOU keep your mouth healthy? What is your secret to achieving healthy gums and teeth? Please comment with your thoughts and ideas.
Did you like this article? Help spread the word and share this post with your friends and family. The more educated people become on how to care for their gums and teeth, the less periodontal disease and tooth decay! Thanks for your support; I appreciate it!
Resources for healthy gums and teeth
Everything you need to achieve healthy gums and teeth can be found in my self-dentistry resource list. Check it out!
- Dr. Tung’s Tongue Scraper
- Dr. Tung’s Smart Floss
- Dr. Tung’s Ionic Toothbrush
- GUM Stimulator
- inKint LED Oral Dental Mirror With Light
- Oral-B Electric Toothbrush
- Sulcabrush Sulcus Brush
- Vita-Pik Oral Syringe/Irrigator
- WowE Natural Manual Bamboo Toothbrush
Self-dentistry serums and polishes
- Living Libations Happy Gum Drops
- Living Libations Yogi Tooth Serum
- Living Libations Mint + Myrrh Swishing Serum
- Living Libations Happy Gum Drops + Oil Swishing Serum
- Living Libations Neem Enamelizer Liquid
- Living Libations Frankincense Fresh Truth Toothpaste
- Living Libations Tooth Truth Polish
- Living Libations Mint Condition Mineral Tooth Powder Whitening + Brightening
Self-dentistry essential oils
- Living Libations Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil
- Living Libations Clove Bud Essential Oil
- Living Libations Oregano Essential Oil
- Living Libations Peppermint Essential Oil
- Living Libations Rose Otto Essential Oil
- Living Libations Tea Tree Essential Oil
Other self-dentistry “ingredients”
- Baking Soda
- Celtic Sea Salt
- Dr. Bronner’s Organic Virgin Unrefined Coconut Oil
- Bulletproof Brain Octane MCT Oil
Self-dentistry product resources
Holistic biological dentist directories
- Dr. Tom McGuire’s Mercury Safe Dentist Directory
- Holistic Dental Association
- International Academy Of Biological Dentistry And Medicine
Dental fluid transport
Weston Price resources
Spring water directories
- Cure Tooth Decay by Ramiel Nagiel
- Dentinal Fluid Transport by Clyde Roggenkamp
- Holistic Dental Care: The Complete Guide to Healthy Teeth and Gums by Nadine Artemis
- Medical Aromatherapy: Healing With Essential Oils by Kurt Schnaubelt
- Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues by Martin J. Blaser
- Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects by Weston A. Price, MS., D.D.S., F.A.G.D.
- Oil Pulling Therapy: Detoxifying and Healing the Body Through Oral Cleansing by Bruce Fife
- Textbook of Dental Homoeopathy: For Dental Surgeons, Homeopathists and General Medical Practitioners by Saffron Walden
- Bulletproof Podcast: “Nadine Artemis: Holistic Dentistry, Root Canal Dangers & Living Libations – #248″
- ReWild Yourself Podcast: “Successful Self-Dentistry – Nadine Artemis #87”
Healthy gums and teeth references
- Artemis, N. (2013). Holistic dental care: the complete guide to healthy teeth and gums. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
- Asokan, S., Emmadi, P., Sivakumar, N., Kumar, R., & Raghuraman, R. (2011). Effect of oil pulling on halitosis and microorganisms causing halitosis: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 29(2), 90. doi:10.4103/0970-4388.84678
- Dewhirst12*, F. E., Chen1, T., Izard12, J., Paster12, B. J., Tanner12, A. C., Yu1, W., & Lakshmanan1, A. A. (2010, October 01). Floyd E. Dewhirst. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://jb.asm.org/content/192/19/5002.full?site=JBacteriol&utm_source=TrendMDJBacteriol&utm_medium=TrendMDJBacteriol&utm_campaign=trendmdalljournals_0
- Essential Oils. (n.d.). Retrieved November 08, 2017, from https://www.livinglibations.com/default/
- Human Microbiome Project – Home. (n.d.). Retrieved November 08, 2017, from https://commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/
- Human microbiota. (2017, November 07). Retrieved November 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota
- Kantawong, F., Singhatong, S., Aomjai, A., Boonyuen, K., Mooti, N., Wanachantararak, P., & Kuboki, T. (2017). Properties of macerated herbal oil. BioImpacts, 7(1), 13-23. doi:10.15171/bi.2017.03
- Nara, R. E. (1991). How To Become Dentally Self-Suffient. Elmira, NY: Oramedics International.
- Shanbhag, V. K. (2017). Oil pulling for maintaining oral hygiene – A review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 7(1), 106-109. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.05.004
- Singh, A., & Purohit, B. (2011). Tooth brushing, oil pulling and tissue regeneration: A review of holistic approaches to oral health. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 2(2), 64. doi:10.4103/0975-9476.82525
- Southward, K. (n.d.). The systemic theory of dental caries. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313822
- The Human Oral Microbiome by Floyd Dewhirst, Harvard University. (2009). SciVee. doi:10.4016/10023.01